lp17 Contradictary evidence

Woodbury, D.J., "Pure lipid vesicles can induce channel-like conductances in planar bilayers", J. Membrane. Biol. 109: 145-150, 1989

Lev, A.A., Korchev, Y.E., Rostovtseva, T.K., Bashford, C.L., Edmonds, D.T., and Parsternak, C.A., "Rapid switching of ion current in narrow pores: implication for biological ion channels. Proc. Royal Society, London, Ser.B 252: 187-192, 1993

Sachs, F., and Qin, F., "Gated, ion-selective channels observed with patch pipettes in the absence of membranes: novel properties of a gigaseal." Biophys. J. 65(3): 1101-1107, 1993