lp14 "Trimming, Cooking and Forging"

Three kinds of scientific frauds, originally from Charles Babbage, Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University in his book: "Reflections on the Decline of Science in England" (First edition 1830 in London; reprinted in 1971 by the Irish University Press, Shannon, Ireland) The following quotation is taken directly from "Honor in Science" by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, New Haven, Conn. 1986.

Trimming: the smoothing of irregularities to make the data look extremely accurate and precise.

Cooking: retaining only those results that fit the theory and discarding others.

Forging: inventing some or all of the research data what are reported, and even reporting experiments to obtain those data that were never performed.